“All models are wrong, but some are useful”.

-- Engineering Statistics Handbook, George Box

Model (some people like to call it simulation) is the magic of imitating the real world over time. The following are some examples of the model I think interesting for energy and climate research.

Model, Introduction

CGE, Computable General Equilibrium

RICE/DICE, Regional Integrated model of Climate and the Economy (RICE) / Dynamic Integrated Climate Change (DICE)

C-ROADS, Climate Rapid Overview and Decision Support

LEAP, The Long-range Energy Alternatives Planning System

MARKAL, Markal is a numerical model used to carry out an economic analysis of different energy related systems at the country level to represent its evolution over a period.

MESSAGE, Model for Energy Supply Strategy Alternatives and their General Environmental Impact

GAINS, The Greenhouse Gas and Air Pollution Interactions andSynergies (GAINS)-Model provides a consistent framework for the analysis of co-benefits reduction strategies from air pollution and greenhouse gas sources.

NEMS, The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer-based, energy-economy modeling system of U.S. through 2030.

MERGE, Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of GHG Reduction Policies

SWITCH, A loose acronym for Solar, Wind, Hydro and Conventional generators and Transmission. Planning low-cost, low-carbon power system investments

ReEDS, The Regional Energy Deployment System (ReEDS) is a long-term capacity expansion model for the deployment of electric power generation technologies and transmission infrastructure throughout the contiguous United States.

PLEXOS, PLEXOS is proven power market modeling and simulation software that uses mathematical programming and stochastic optimization techniques combined with the latest data handling techniques, to provide a robust analytical framework for power market modelers.

Balmorel, Balmorel is a model for analyzing the electricity and combined heat and power sectors in an international perspective.

GridLAB-D, GridLAB-D is an open-source simulation and analysis tool that models emerging smart grid energy technologies.

EnergyPlus, EnergyPlus is a whole building energy simulation program that engineers, architects, and researchers use to model energy and water use in buildings.

SAM , The System Advisor Model (SAM) is a performance and financial model designed to facilitate decision making in renewable energy.

GCAM, Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), an integrated assessment tool for exploring consequences and responses to global change.

Open-source Efforts

Open Model Initiative: Open models and open data will advance knowledge and lead to better energy policies.

OSeMOSYS: The Open Source Energy Modeling System

TEMOA: Tools for Energy Model Optimization and Assessment

Modeler’s community

National Center for Atmospheric Research, Community Earth System Model

Integrated Assessment Modeling Consortium

Stanford University, Energy Model Forum

Stockholm Environment Institute, Community of Energy, Environment, and Development

Open Energy Modeling Initiative


GAMS, The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) is a high-level modeling system for mathematical programming and optimization

AMPL, A Modeling Language for Mathematical Programming

Last updated: March 20, 2014