The SWITCH-China Model

The SWITCH-China Model was first developed in the Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory at UC Berkeley as Dr. Gang He's Ph.D. dissertation. SWITCH-China is introduced to address the challenges facing China's clean power transition: soaring variable renewable energy penetration and curtailment; pressing air pollution, water stress, climate change, and human health challenges by coal consumption.

Core Publication

Gang He, Anne-Perrine Avrin, James H. Nelson, Josiah Johnston, Ana Mileva, Jianwei Tian, and Daniel M. Kammen. 2016. SWITCH-China: A Systems Approach to Decarbonizing China’s Power System. Environmental Science and Technology. 50(11):5467–5473. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01345. [pdf] [Supporting Information] [Poster]

He, Gang, Jiang Lin, Froylan Sifuentes, Xu Liu, Nikit Abhyankar, and Amol Phadke. 2020. Rapid Cost Decrease of Renewables and Storage Accelerates the Decarbonization of China’s Power System. Nature Communications 11 (1): 2486. [pdf] [SBU News] [LBL News] [CarbonBrief Headline] [InsideClimateNews] [E&E News/ClimateWire]

Related Publication

Gang He, Daniel M. Kammen. 2016. Where, when and how much solar is available? A provincial-scale solar resource assessment for China. Renewable Energy. 85:74-82. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2015.06.027. [pdf]

Gang He, Daniel M. Kammen. 2014. Where, when and how much wind is available? A provincial-scale wind resource assessment for China. Energy Policy. 74:116-122. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2014.07.003. [pdf]

Jianlin Hu, Lin Huang, Mindong Chen, Gang He, Hongliang Zhang. 2017. Impacts of Power Generation on Air Quality in China - Part II: Future Scenarios. Resources, Conservation and Recycling. 121:115–127. doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.04.011


Provincial solar potential data

Provincial wind potential data

Please cite corresponding papers to use the data.

GIS data


Gang He leads the efforts to aggregate the data, develop the model, and write the paper. Gang is working with collaborators to integrate water, air quality, and human health constraints into SWITCH-China model capabilities.

Anne-Perrine Avrin contributed the nuclear module, data processing, and paper writing. AP is working on enhancing the uncertainty analysis of SWITCH model.

James H. Nelson, Josiah Johnston, Ana Mileva are the core developer of SWITCH-WECC model. James Nelson contributed significantly an earlier version of SWITCH-China. Josiah Johnston facilitates greatly the data management and processing.

Jianwei Tian developed an Excel-based 2020 China Power model while visiting RAEL which is a good resource of SWITCH-China.

Daniel M. Kammen is the director of RAEL at UC Berkeley, who envisions, supervises and supports the umbrella SWITCH model family at RAEL.


Wenjia Cai, Huibin Du, Bo Li, Jiang Lin, Froylan Sifuentes, Hongliang Zhang, Chao Zhang, Hongyang Zou.


Dr. Matthias Fripp is pioneering in creating SWITCH model. Xuxuan Xie, Hongyou Lu, Daniel Sanchez, Diego Barido, Shiyu Huang, Kate Yu, Shuyu Yang, Xiao Su, Yu Chen, Hua Yuan, and Nan Yuan for their help with some of the data and charts used in the model. We thank Dr. Zhaoguang Hu and Prof. Shiqiu Zhang for the advice. We thank the Karsten Family Foundation Endowment for the support of Renewable and Appropriate Energy Laboratory. We also thank 3TIER for the data support.